I started collecting Dracula, vampire, and horror memorabilia in and continued amassing a huge collection, which, I hoped, I could incorporate into a museum when the time was right , as it turned out. In Robert died suddenly and unexpectedly. Actor friends in London offered me their flat, and I jumped at the opportunity to live abroad. I had their apartment on Pall Mall for four years and later sublet a house in Cambridge, England, for four more years.
I commuted between the United States and England during this time, which meant I could have two active club headquarters, one in the States and one in Britain the best of all possible worlds. One of the first things I did once I got to London was join the British Dracula Society, and in I accompanied them on their first trip to Romania. The journey was, in a way, a turning point in my life, when I realized that my society had far more potential than I had originally thought. Shortly thereafter I gave up filmmaking and turned my complete attention to running the Count Dracula Fan Club.
I gave interviews, spoke at conferences, and fielded innumerable media requests. The public s appetite for vampires became as insatiable as the vampires own blood lust. By , it was obvious that the Count Dracula Fan Club had grown beyond Stoker s Count and far beyond being just a fan club. Vampires and Dracula had hit the big time in all respects and had become a potent force in entertainment, literature and the performing arts, and as pop icons. I renamed the society the Vampire Empire at the turn of this century, a title I thought more befitting our extensive modus operandi.
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Along the way, I have had the privilege of traveling around the world, and I have met many terrific people, some of whom have become important parts of the Vampire Empire and the entire vampire field as well as close personal friends. One of these persons is Rosemary Ellen Guiley. I met Rosemary in , when she contacted me for her first book on vampires, Vampires Among Us. Having worked with many writers and reporters, I was most impressed with Rosemary s knowledge, professionalism, and thoroughness in research. Vampires Among Us became a must-read for vampire fans, and I have no doubt that this encyclopedia will be met with the same enthusiasm.
Rosemary has compiled an encyclopedia of astonishing scope and depth, from little-known folklore to arts and entertainment, to roleplaying in social cultures. Simply put, the book is fascinating and fun. No matter where you open it, you will find something amazing. It is also a substantial compendium of information, an indispensable and very accessible tool for anyone who undertakes research on vampires and werewolves, whether for academic study, for books and articles, or for novels and entertainment. There is always something new to learn about the vampire and his cousin, the werewolf. The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters is a top pick, an important contribution to this ever-growing field.
Many hours were spent in the Vampire Empire archives and library. I met Jeannie in the late s, when I started work on my first book on vampires, Vampires Among Us. Her contributions to the field and her knowledge are substantial. I am also deeply grateful to my dear friend and longtime collaborator, Joanne P. Joanne also had a hand in my Complete Vampire Companion, long out of print now, from which some of the material in this encyclopedia has been adapted and updated. Special thanks go to David and Janet Hale, friends from Dark Shadows, to whom this book is dedicated.
When one of my cherished autographed, out-of-print, and scarce Dark Shadows books went missing at a conference, David and Janet set off on an international cyber-hunt to track down a replacement copy, finally landing one in Australia. And not only that, they arranged for the Dark Shadows stars to autograph it, making it nearly identical and even better than the one I lost. Thanks to Jim Pierson, director of the Dark Shadows Festival, for his help on making the arrangements.
I am indebted to the help, knowledge, and advice of numerous experts and scholars in the study of vampires, Dracula, Bram Stoker, and werewolves. Carter, literary experts and critics; and numerous others whose works were especially helpful, among them Clive Leatherdale, Harry Ludlam, J. Once again I am pleased to include the fabulous art of my longtime friend and collaborator, Robert Michael Place, who contributed several images from his outstanding Vampire Tarot. I would also like to thank Linda S. Vampires do exist an assertion that often raises eyebrows. That is because our impressions of vampires, and what we think we know about them, almost always derive solely from their portrayal in entertainment: brooding figures in sweeping capes with blood-dripping fangs; wealthy, magically empowered, and beautiful immortals, and so on.
The real vampire is a much darker creature, a legitimate member of demonologies, folktales, myths, and superstitions around the world. The vampire is the entity, force, or presence that brings illness, misfortune, death, and destruction. It is the demon parasite that threatens to suck health, vitality, and life away from its victims. It can be blamed for blight, pestilence, plague, stillbirth, sudden death, and wasting death. It is the embodiment of our darkest and most primeval fears, of the dark, the unknown, the grave, and the uncertainty of what, if anything, comes after death.
Vampires exist alongside countless other demonic entities credited with preying upon the living. They come in many guises, from the walking and ghostly dead to ugly abominations, but whatever their form, demonic vampires always elicit horror and revulsion. Our intimate contact with vampires is as ancient as humanity. Vampires, or creatures like them, exist in every culture around the world; they are part of the dark hazards of life.
Throughout history, people have developed ways to protect against such hazards and to conquer them whenever they threaten the stability of life. As societies have become more sophisticated, vampires and other supernatural entities have fallen into backwaters of superstition and have been dismissed to fictional realms. But humanity s darkest fears, especially of death, still exist, and so fascination with vampires persists.
In fiction, the vampire has become increasingly attractive and alluring. Perhaps this is our attempt to face the dark head on and come to terms with it. Like many people, my interest in vampires began with fiction and with reading the granddaddy of all vampire novels, Dracula, by Bram Stoker. Fiction led me naturally to films, and from there I explored vampires in folklore, mythology, demonology, psychology, and performing arts.
As a metaphor for death, fear, evil, and alienation, the vampire has permeated virtually every part of society. The European vampire cult was discovered nearly years ago, and Dracula has been gripping audiences for more than years. The field of vampire studies keeps expanding, with innumerable books, articles, and commentaries on the creatures published each year. One cannot study vampires without examining their first cousins, the werewolves; vampire lore is intermingled with werewolf lore.
Also involved are predatory shapeshifters and a host of demonic entities that, while not vampires per se, are vampiric in nature. The bulk of this encyclopedia is devoted to vampires, followed by werewolves and then vampiric demons and shape-shifters. Special attention is given to folklore beliefs, practices, stories and anecdotes, and legends. A large body of folklore exists on vampires. They have many names and characteristics, and beliefs about them vary from one locale to another, even within small geographic areas. I also have included surveys and overviews of vampire studies and vampires in arts, entertainment, pop culture, and psychology, with individual entries on prominent people, cases, organizations, films, books, and so on.
Fiction has created its own body of folklore, equally as fascinating as historical folklore. I do not think we will ever tire of the vampire. An expert shape-shifter, the vampire constantly changes form to embody whatever contemporary society dreads the most. As soon as we think we have conquered it, it rises anew like the reanimated dead of old to haunt us in yet another form. Glenn Strange plays Frankenstein. The comedy plot concerns who will provide the brain for Frankenstein. Dracula tries to get Costello s brain because he is a simpleton.
Dracula reasons that thus he will be able to control Frankenstein. Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein was a hit and shored up the flagging careers of the comedy duo. But sequels, in which Abbott and Costello meet other monsters and villains the Mummy, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the Invisible Man, and Captain Kidd did not achieve the same success.
The abchanchu pretends to be a kindly old man who loses his way. His well-meaning, helpful victims are either stricken with a fatal disease or are sucked dry of their BLOOD while they are asleep. Addams Family, The The American television sitcom based on the Charles Addams cartoons of the same name, about a family of eccentrics and monsters. The family features the vampiric Morticia Addams Carolyn Jones as the lady of a most strange household.
In addition, there is Thing, an animated hand played by Ted Cassidy that lives in a box. Their telephone number is Cemetery Plots concern the family s strange habits in the modern world. The series ran for 64 episodes. Like the European vampire, the afrit can be stopped by driving a nail into the bloodstained ground. The cast of The Addams Family Author s collection humor were popular throughout his career. Glut, Donald. The Dracula Book. Metuchen, N. The woman bore ten offspring, five weredogs and five normal dogs. Revolted by them, she put them on rafts and set them adrift on the ocean.
The dogs did not perish, but eventually reached Europe. The five dogs intermarried among the white Europeans. The ugly weredogs turned into flesh-eating monsters who took up habitats in the northern lands. The adze lives among tribal sorcerers of the Ewe in Ghana and southern Togo. If captured, it turns into a human and attacks its captors. It especially likes the blood of beautiful children. The al may have originated in the Babylonian lore of the alu, a malevolent spirit in the form of a black dog that causes diseases. It possesses a pointed hat covered with bells that renders it invisible.
The al likes to live in damp and dirty places, including homes and stables. It also frequents wet and sandy places along roads. The al strangles pregnant women and their unborn children and pulls out their livers. It causes miscarriages and steals newborn infants up to seven months old. The explanation for the al s rage against women and infants is found in Christianized lore.
God gave Adam an al, but the two were not compatible, for Adam was made of dust and the al was made of fire.
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God then created Eve as a substitute. This enraged the al, who dedicated itself to attacking women. Another Christian story about the al tells that St. Peter once came upon a creature with iron teeth and tusks, sitting in a wet and sandy place along a road. The saint asked it to identify itself, and it gave its name and described its activities. The best remedy against the al is iron: Keep numerous iron objects and utensils around; especially place them around the bed of a pregnant woman, or place an iron knife under her pillow. Prayers and charms also are effective for warding off attacks.
Mack, Carol K. Ale plural assume human form and drink boiled milk, wine, and vodka like water. They bring storms that ruin crops. According to a Serbian folktale, a peasant who lost all his money because his vineyard was plucked clean by an ala is told how to kill the vampire: he must wait under his pear tree with a shotgun loaded with pellets of lead, SILVER,.
The peasant replants his vineyard, which produces an abundant harvest. The ala comes to eat the grapes, and the sky becomes dark and menacing, with lightning, thunder, and hail. The peasant loads his shotgun and waits beneath the pear tree. Soon the ala arrives in the form of an eagle.
The peasant shoots it and it falls to the ground; he kills it. The sky immediately clears. The peasant regains his wealth. Perkowski, Jan L. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, algul Arabian vampire. Alnwick Castle Vampire 12th c. The story was told to him by a very devout old priest of high authority and most honorable reputation. According to the priest, a depraved and dishonest Yorkshire man had lived a life of sin and crime.
He escaped the law and went to Alnwick Castle, whose lord he knew. He settled there and continued his wicked ways. He married, but rumors circulated that his wife was unfaithful. To discover the truth, he told his wife that he was going away for several days. The first night, he hid himself on the roof above his bed in order catch his wife in the act of adultery. His wife was indeed cheating on him with a local youth. In shock, the man fell to the ground beside the bed. The youth escaped. The man rebuked his wife and threatened to punish her. But his injuries were so severe that he fell gravely ill.
The priest visited the man and urged him to make his confession, but the man delayed doing so and then died impenitent. Nonetheless, he was given a Christian burial. It was to no avail. Said William: For by the power of Satan in the dark hours he was wont to come forth from his tomb and to wander about all through the streets, prowling round the houses, whilst on every side the dogs were howling and yelping the whole night long. Throughout the whole district then every man locked and barred his door, nor did anyone between the hours of dusk and dawn fare to go out on any business whatsoever, so greatly did each one fear that he might haply meet this fellow monster and be attacked and most grievously harmed.
Wherever the dead man went, he left behind him an unbearable stench. The fetid and corrupt presence of the specter created a plague that affected every household in the town. People fled to other districts. On a Palm Sunday, the priest called a council to decide on a course of action. But two young men who had lost their father to the plague decided to take matters into their own hands while the elders met.
The brothers found the body gorged and swollen, with a florid face and red, puffed cheeks. The shroud was dirty and torn. They struck the corpse with a sharp spade. Fresh, warm blood gushed forth. They reported what they had done to the town elders, many of whom ran out to the fire to witness the destruction of the corpse.
The air was cleansed and the plague stopped. The term vampire was not used, as it had not yet entered the English language; however, the revenant exhibited the same characteristics attributed to vampires. True Vampires of History. A Clutch of Vampires. Children are at risk of becoming alps if their mothers use horse collars to ease the difficulties of childbirth.
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Alps can manifest as a butterfly vampire released by the breath of the horerczy demon, which sucks the life breath out of its victims. They also appear as cats, pigs, birds, and lecherous dogs. Even in animal form, the alp likes to wear a magical hat, which confers upon it invisibility and supernatural power. The alp causes unpleasant dreams of both women and men, and also sexually molests both sexes. Oddly, it does not force itself on its victims, but enters through the victim s mouth as a mist or a snake.
It also drinks BLOOD through the nipples of both men and women, and consumes the milk of women and cows. To protect against an alp attack, women should sleep with their shoes at the side of the bed and pointing toward the door. American Werewolf in London, An Film directed by John Landis in which American youths are attacked by a werewolf while they vacation in England, and one of them is turned into a werewolf. Author s collection They are warned to stay away from the moors, especially on nights of the full MOON which is precisely where they find themselves. Alone and away from the main road, they wander through the moonlit landscape.
Suddenly they are attacked by what appears to be a ferocious wolf. Jack is mauled to death. David flees and then returns for his friend, finding him dead. The wolf attacks David. But before it can kill him, a band of hunters appears and shoots the wolf dead. Just before David passes out, he sees that the body of the wolf has been transformed into the body of a young man. David awakens three weeks later in a hospital in London. The truth of the attack has been covered up: The official explanation given the medical staff in London is that the boys were attacked by an insane man.
David s wounds were cleaned and dressed before he was sent to London. David recovers and falls in love with the nurse, Alex Price Jenny Agutter who attends him. While still in the hospital, David begins having bizarre nightmares involving the werewolf. He has hallucinations of his dead friend, Jack, who tells him that since he did not die of his wounds, he is cursed to become a werewolf, too. Jack is cursed to be in limbo, a kind of undead, until the new werewolf David is killed and the werewolf s bloodline is broken.
Jack urges David to kill himself before he makes his first change at the full moon. David refuses to believe him. After David is discharged, Alex takes him back to her flat. On the night of the full moon, David is alone in the flat and makes an excruciatingly painful change into a werewolf. In his final appearance, Jack brings along the six newly dead victims, all of whom are doomed to the same undead limbo. By this time, the London doctor who attended David is on to the truth, and he and Alex try to find David to save him.
They are too late. David makes a second transformation into werewolf in a London porn theater. After a scene of mayhem in Picadilly Circus, police chase the werewolf into a dead end. Alex and the doctor arrive on the scene. Just as Alex proclaims her love for David, the police shoot him dead. Viewers see every part of the transformation, unlike earlier films in which most of the transformation had to be done off-camera. The film features some fictional werewolf lore concerning the victims who enter limbo until the werewolf s bloodline is severed. Overall, the film suffers from schizophrenia: It is neither camp nor horror.
There is too much silly humor for it to be horrifying, and not enough humor to be camp. Naughton gives a commendable performance, but he seems to try too hard to play a naive youth. In a now macabre touch, the credits at the end of the film congratulate Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer on their wedding in the same year that the film was released. The trip is a Daredevil Tour of Europe, with the three vying against one another to see who can perform the most dangerous stunt. Andy decides to bungee-jump off the Eiffel Tower.
Her secret is that she is a werewolf. Andy falls in love with Serafine, but she remains elusive. They are attacked. Brad is killed and Andy is wounded. Brad appears to Andy, as did Jack to David in the earlier film. By special effects were more sophisticated, and Andy s transformation into a wolfish beast is slick and mesmerizing, making David Naughton s thrashings in the film look clumsy by comparison. The women suckle the cats. It is extremely unlucky to hear their cries in the bush. Their presence brings misfortune. Angel first aired on the WB network on October 5, , and had its fifth season in From to , Buffy also ran on the WB, allowing the writers to incorporate crossover appearances by the actors and parallel story lines.
But when Buffy joined the UPN network in the fall of , bad relations between the two networks ended the shows cozy relationship until spring Cast of Characters By the beginning of season five in October , David Boreanaz was the only remaining original cast member. Besides Angel himself see profile under Buffy , the major characters are as follows: Cordelia Charisma Carpenter : The former teen queen of Sunnydale High School, Cordelia now works for Angel and attempts to pursue her dream of an acting career although her friends admit in private she s not very talented.
Before Doyle dies fighting a devilish machine, he kisses Cordelia and psychically transfers his ability to have intense, painful visions to her. The pain eventually leads Cordelia to the dark side, and she becomes part demon. She has sex with Angel s son Connor, and they have a demon child, Jasmine.
Wesley Wyndham-Pryce Alexis Denisof : Another character from Buffy, Wes has been thrown off the Watcher s Council and becomes a self-styled rogue demon hunter, but he s better suited to helping Angel and Cordelia than taking off on his own. His knowledge of evil forces and recognition of criminals past and present make him invaluable to her investigations.
Rohm left the show in early to join the cast of Law and Order as the new assistant district attorney, Serena Southerlyn. Charles Gunn J. His full name is Krevlorneswath of the Deathwok Clan, and his home world is Pylea, a place where humans may be mistreated. Pylea can be reached only through a portal to another dimension. Lorne s face is green with small red horns protruding from his forehead. Romantically, she pairs off with Gunn and Wesley.
After that, Angel and company are invited to join the firm, which they do at the beginning of the fifth season. Synopsis of the Episodes During the first season, Angel tries to establish his new business and forget the heartbreak of leaving Buffy. Employing Doyle s visions, Angel hunts down vampires and demons, sometimes even helping the Los Angeles Police Department with an investigation. Cordelia decides to find another apartment and is delighted with the onebedroom Doyle locates for her until the unhappy spirits of earlier residents haunt the place. In a vision Doyle sees The Scourge, a group of half-breed demons with Nazi-like tendencies.
The Scourge have built a machine that kills any human within a quarter-mile, and Doyle volunteers to sacrifice himself to destroy the machine. Before he dies, Doyle kisses Cordelia, passing to her his ability to see the visions. Wesley joins AI after a brief stint as a rogue demon hunter. At the end of the season, Angel has been captured and forced to participate in battles with enslaved demons at a fight club.
The contents of the crate: Angel s vampire sire, Darla. Season two begins with Gunn as a new investigator and the search of an abandoned Hollywood hotel, which takes them back to Angel complains of sleeping badly, unaware that Darla visits him every night. Flashbacks take Angel to the day in , when the Master sired Darla, a whore from the Virginia colony, and then she sired him. Cordelia begins the third season enduring another very painful vision about violence to women.
Meanwhile, Darla has returned, very pregnant, and searches for Angel, the father. She delivers a son, Connor, and surprises Angel with her tender love of the baby. Angel tries black magic to bring Connor back but fails. Connor returns to Los Angeles from Hell at the end of the season, having zoomed through childhood. He is now an angry yearold, bent on vengeance for Angel s past. Angel and Cordelia remain missing for three months in season four, and Connor, who knows Angel s whereabouts, murders the only eyewitness to Angel s location so as to cover his tracks.
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Angel reappears, but Cordelia is still missing. She has gone to a higher plane, where she becomes more demonlike, then returns, suffering from amnesia. Lorne casts a spell to return Cordelia s memory, but it erases all current information from the others minds, taking them back to their high school days. Cordelia s visions show the imminent arrival of the Beast, who intends to destroy the world. To do that, the Beast must slaughter five totems; the fifth is an AI client named Manny.
Once the five have been destroyed, the sun disappears. In a vision, Cordelia learns that the Beast and Angelus were once a team, and Angel tells the others that in he helped the Beast kill some Nordic priestesses. Angel and Cordelia make love, but that happy moment triggers the Gypsy curse, and Angel wakes up as Angelus, without a soul. His friends put his soul in a box and place it in a locked safe, but it later disappears. Faith breaks out of prison to help Angelus take on the Beast, stabbing it with its own weapon, and when the creature dies, the sunlight returns to Los Angeles.
The friends believe the worst is over until Cordelia comes downstairs, pregnant with Connor s child. The delivery leaves Cordelia unconscious, and the gang does not understand that the full-grown woman standing next to her is her daughter, Jasmine but never a child. Fred recognizes the real Jasmine behind her beautiful face, which is now covered in maggots, and tries to shoot her.
Angel realizes what a sham Jasmine is. Angel and company encounter a monster that tells Angel that Jasmine was originally a god and worshiped, but now she lives in an oxygen-free dimension. Since as a vampire Angel doesn t breathe, he goes after Jasmine, finding a High Priest and a giant demon guarding her. Jasmine prepares to broadcast to the world the establishment of peace. Angel kills the priest and beheads the demon, while Connor finds Cordelia unconscious in a nearby church. They return to Los Angeles with Cordelia and the severed head, and when Angel brings out the head, Jasmine reveals her true nature.
Several try to kill her, but it is her own father, Connor, who ends her life. Connor, enraged that he has no chance of living with a happy family, goes berserk, killing innocent people at a mall. When he opens it, an amulet falls out and begins spinning until a screaming Spike appears. Spike s body had been destroyed and sent to Hell when Sunnydale collapsed into the Hellmouth, but his spirit was returned to the body against his will.
Spike admits he is terrified of falling into Hell forever. Roger steals an artifact from the vault and plans the vampire s enslavement. Angel and Spike learn that drinking from the Cup of Perpetual Torment, which grants human life, is the only remedy, and they fight for this prize. Flashbacks reveal that Angel and Spike were once friends until they competed for Drusilla. Angel suffers intense fevers and hallucinations, fearing Spike will supplant him, and Spike is shown using wrist stakes to kill two vampires in an alley.
Noir Way Out While Angel shares but even more darkly many of the same themes explored in Buffy the Vampire Slayer the importance of a family group, no matter how unconventional; the bliss and agony of love; the ambiguity of good and evil within each individual the central pursuit of each season is the journey to redemption, and what a difficult and dangerous path one must take to get there.
Angel Investigations employs misfits: Cordelia, a former teen bitch learning humility through constant rejection as she strives to succeed in acting; Wesley, an insecure but fairly pompous Watcher that grows into a sure leader; Doyle, a demon half-breed that dies to save Angel and the citizens of Los Angeles; and two vampires, Angel and Spike, tormented by the memories of their past crimes and burdened by the possession of souls.
Even the secondary characters that come and go during the series learn the wisdom and rightness of sacrifice for the greater good. In her essay entitled She Saved the World. A Lot, Roz Kaveney notes that, more than anyone else does, Angel craves redemption but sees no path to that end but through hard lessons.
He suffers blinding guilt, cries out in anguish when true happiness turns him to evil, and cannot shake the flashbacks of his rebirth with Darla and the torture he inflicted on poor Drusilla before condemning her to immortality and damnation. He desires Buffy but fears the consequences of that attraction. He loves his son, Connor, but fails as a father to protect him. Angel suffers from the delusion that redemption is simply a matter of saving enough lives to pay off the karmic debt created during his years as Angelus, and staying humane while he does it, notes Kaveney.
He refuses any soft options his redemption must be done the hard way. If Angel can continue to fight the good fight, he may eventually be returned to full humanity. Angel: Episode Guide. Seasons 1 5. TV Tome. She Saved the World. A Lot. Roz Kaveney, ed. In a wolf terrorized Anspach now Ansbach , Germany, killing women, children, and domestic animals. The townspeople believed the wolf to be the late burgomaster, a most detested man, who was returning to wreak havoc. A great hunt was mounted, and at last the wolf was chased into a well and killed.
The carcass of the wolf was then dressed up like the burgomaster in a flesh-colored suit, mask, wig, and beard. It was hung from a gibbet. Later, the carcass was put on display in a museum as a werewolf. The belief of the townspeople that the burgomaster had returned from the dead to attack them made him a vampire of sorts, but in wolf form and not in his own form as the reanimated dead. Sidky, H. The Ape Man was directed by William Beaudine. Initially a shocking monster and a disease- and death-spreading evil, the vampire has evolved into a sexual deviate, antihero, hero, romantic lead, comic lead and even a stock character, as common as the person next door.
Authors were quick to use vampirism as a literary device for exploring the themes of BLOOD, sex, and death in daring new ways. Heinrich August Ossenfelder s poem The Vampire, which concerns the nocturnal visitation of a vampire lover, caused a scandal when it was published in Jacques Cazotte s novel Le diable amoreux is a charming fantasy about a soldier who conjures up a beautiful succubus named Biondetta. Casanova s Icosameron and some of the works of his contemporary, the marquis de Sade, describe the ecstasies of drinking human blood.
Berger s poem Lenore , which tells of an undead lover, and Johann von Goethe s ballad Die Braut von Korinth are based on classical sources. Wake Not the Dead ca. It is usually attributed to the German fabulist Johann Ludwig von Tieck. Wake Not the Dead or The Bride of the Grave tells of a nobleman named Walter who becomes obsessed by the memory of his deceased wife, Brunhilda.
He finds a necromancer who raises her from the grave and brings her back to life. At first he is ecstatic, but Brunhilda soon develops a thirst for human blood. After destroying his household and murdering the children whom he had fathered with his second wife, she turns on him. Walter overcomes her but ultimately pays a horrible price for disturbing the natural order.
Although history records the character of Polidori as dour and dull, filmmakers such as Ken Russell and films like Haunted Summer hint that his relationship with Byron deepened beyond friendship due mostly to their mutual enjoyment of narcotics such as laudanum. Byron, however, professed an intense dislike for Polidori. It was assumed that Byron was the author, prompting the poet to make an angry denial and then to create his own version, Fragment of a Story, that was far less vampiric.
Byron could not prevent The Vampyre from becoming a sensation all over Europe, inspiring fiction, poetry, and drama. One critic noted that the Broucolaca or vampire has hitherto become a favorite in the English closet. But at Paris, he has been received with rapturous applause at almost all the spectacles, from the Odeon to the Porte St. Martin; all the presses of the Palais Royale have for the last two years been employed in celebrating, and describing, and speculating on him and his adventures Although Polidori s creation has few of the dramatic strengths and weaknesses now associated with the vampire, his story transformed the vampire from a moldering peasant wrapped in its burial shroud, to a foreign, sinister vampiric nobleman who interacts in genteel society.
Like The Vampyre, Varney tells a tale of a rakish blue blood whose vampiric predations were described in ample purple prose. But unlike Lord Ruthven, Sir Francis Varney is tormented by his vampire state, and he is developed for the reader s sympathy. At the end, the disgusted Varney throws himself into the pit of an active volcano, Mount Vesuvius, to put a permanent end to himself. The cornerstone upon which all vampire characters now turn was laid in by Bram Stoker in his novel Dracula. There are hints of deeper sorrow and an alienation from the place and time in which he finds himself, but Stoker never allows the reader entry into the viewpoint of the vampire as he stalks his victims.
Stoker researched the vampire legend and superstition, but his Dracula differs in important ways from the vampire of European folklore. Then Stoker gives him more: mesmerizing, telepathic powers, lizardlike abilities, the ability to travel around the world as long as he has a box full of his native earth to sleep in, the ability to regenerate himself into youthfulness from blood as opposed to merely sustaining his corpse in the grave , and so on. Dracula s sexuality is not overtly described, largely due to Victorian mores.
But when the heroine, Mina Harker, describes her inability to resist him as he drinks her blood, she implies rape rather than seduction. Courtesy Vampire Empire Archives. He is the epitome of evil, and his actions are inevitably self-serving and cruel. Stoker probably would be appalled at the later image of Dracula, especially in film, as an alluring, romantic figure. Many of today s fictional vampires would be unrecognizable to Stoker as vampires.
Pulp fiction. The next classic vampire novel, Sydney Horler s The Vampire, was not published until But during the s the continuing success of Dracula inspired many of the contributors to the new American pulp magazines to write stories about vampires. Although they were not always of the highest literary quality, these stories thrilled and entertained millions of readers. All of these strange creatures of the night have their roots in stories that have existed for centuries in folklore and mythology.
The Encyclopedia of Vampires and Werewolves, Second Edition provides more than entries exploring the supernatural aspects of these creatures and their pop culture counterparts. Entries describe supposed true historical accounts, how vampires and werewolves come into existence, beliefs about vampires and werewolves, and real-life creatures and cases that may have inspired their legends. The most popular fictional vampires from a range of media are discussed, along with the people who helped create them. Also included in this invaluable resource are more than full-color and black-and-white photographs and illustrations, suggestions for further reading, and a bibliography.
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