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How much did class barriers really come down? Did they stick with their own sort? And what about fun and love in wartime - did love cross the class barriers? Anne de Courcy is an English biographer and journalist.
Kitchens Debs at War Snowdon: The Biography Main Page Debs at War : Debs at War : Level 3 Diploma in Plumbing Studies Candidate handbook. North American Indian Beadwork Patterns. The Magnificent Basilicas of Florence. The institution of the —43 Star later named the — Star was announced on 8 July and, in August, it was announced that the first uniform ribbon bars would be issued to qualifying personnel later that year. The medals themselves were not intended to be available until after the cessation of hostilities.
Some ribbon issues to overseas troops were delayed, but many had been received by the end of and were worn by recipients throughout the remainder of the war. The — Star was awarded for operational service between 3 September and 2 September , and was the only campaign star that covered the full duration of the Second World War. Two clasps were instituted to be worn on the medal ribbon, along with rosettes to be worn on the ribbon bar of the medal to denote the award of a clasp:   . The — Star was awarded for specified periods of operational service overseas between 3 September and either 8 May in Europe or 2 September in the Far East theatre.
The broad criteria were days of service between these dates, with more specific criteria depending on service arm.
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The award of a gallantry medal or Mention in Dispatches qualified the recipient for the award of the — Star, regardless of service duration. Personnel whose qualifying service period was terminated prematurely by their death or disability due to service were awarded this Star. In addition, some special criteria applied when, at certain specified times, just one day's service was required. These latter instances were actions for which a more specific campaign medal was not awarded and the regulations for award made provision for a number of operations in Europe, the Middle East, the Pacific Theatre and India and Burma, in which entry into operational service for one day or part thereof qualified personnel for the award of the — Star.
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Some notable examples are:    . In the case of personnel in operational service at the end of active hostilities in Europe on 8 May , the actual operational service requirement period for the award of the Atlantic Star, Air Crew Europe Star, Italy Star and France and Germany Star was reduced to entry into a theatre of operations and the prior six or two months service requirements did not apply. The — Star, however, was not awarded in any of these cases in which actual operational service amounted to less than six or two months.
The set of nine campaign stars was designed by the Royal Mint engravers.
The stars all have a ring suspender which passes through an eyelet formed above the uppermost point of the star. They are six—pointed stars, struck in yellow copper zinc alloy to fit into a 44 millimetres diameter circle, with a maximum width of 38 millimetres and 50 millimetres high from the bottom point of the star to the top of the eyelet.
– Star - Wikipedia
The British Honours Committee decided that Second World War campaign medals awarded to British forces would be issued unnamed,  a policy applied by all but three British Commonwealth countries. The recipient's name was impressed on the reverse of the stars awarded to Indians, South Africans and, after a campaign led by veteran organisations, to Australians. Both clasps were struck in bronze and have a frame with an inside edge which resembles the perforated edge of a postage stamp.
The rosettes, to be worn on the ribbon bar when medals are not worn, are silver-gilt for the Battle of Britain Clasp and silver for the Bomber Command Clasp.
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The ribbon is 32 millimetres wide, with equal width bands of Navy blue, Army red and Air Force blue, with the dark blue band representing the Naval Forces and the Merchant Navy, the red band the Armies and the light blue band the Air Forces. The equal width bands represent the equal contributions of the three service arms towards victory.
The order of wear of the Second World War campaign stars was determined by their respective campaign start dates and by the campaign's duration. This is the order worn, even when a recipient qualified for them in a different order. The Defence Medal and War Medal are worn after the stars. The Star is therefore worn as shown: . On 6 April the Union of South Africa instituted its own range of military decorations and medals. These new awards were worn before all earlier British decorations and medals awarded to South Africans, with the exception of the Victoria Cross , which still took precedence before all other awards.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United Kingdom military campaign medal for service in the Second World War. London: HM Stationery Office. Retrieved 1 August Taprell Dorling.
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