The Memoirs of Cleopatra
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New poetry. Poem of the week: Kalinovik. Prothorax and its appendages. Middle part of prosternum with distinct median keel which is usually hidden behind by the coxae, as the distal ends of these project vertically from their cavities, their vertical inner faces touching one another in almost all species. Posterior plate of prosternum more or less pointed behind. Posterior plate of pros- ternum broadly truncate behind.
Second and third pairs of legs. Mention of other, but less distinctive, differences between the two sections of the family, which are referred to in the preceding part of this paper, need not be repeated here. Three genera of the first section [Ceracupes , Auritulus and Cylindrocaulus differ markedly from all the rest; but although they are evidently related to one another more closely than to any other genus, they differ from one another so greatly that no single character not found in other genera of the section has yet been described as common to all three of them. I have therefore included these genera with all the rest in the single subfamily Aulacocyclinae, although I think that a further examination of them may yet afford grounds for their separation.
My principal reason for thinking this is that all known species of Ceracupes and Auritulus differ from all species I have examined of the genera Tristorthus , Taeniocerus , Comacupes and Aulacocyclus , in having the middle lower tooth jointed on to the basal part of the mandible, as it appears to be in all genera of the second section of the family, instead of fused with it.
Unfortunately I have not seen any specimens of the genera Caulifer and Cylindrocaulus. Central tubercle very strongly developed, its apex fused with anterior margin of head; upper tooth of both mandibles very long and slender; middle lower tooth moveable 2. Ceracupes, Kaup; pp. Auritulus , Zang, p. Cylindrocaulus, Fairmaire; p.
Mentum with primary scars, except when these are replaced by more or less strongly developed secondary scars 8 ; outer tubercles of head often complex.. The definition given here involves the transference of Taeniocerus deyrollei, and with it X presume T mastersi I have seen specimens of the latter determined by Zang, but not the original description , to the genus Aulacocyclus.
These species appear to me to resemble A. HI, Memoirs of the Indian Museum. Aceraiinae; pp. Macrolininae; pp. The first of these subfamilies, the Pleurariiuae, contains only one Oriental genus, Pleurarius. This genus has been grouped by Kuwert with the genera Ninoides , Pertinacides and Epipertinax, all of which are confined to the New World. I have not seen specimens of any of these genera, so am not in a position to criticize his opinion.
The definition of the Macrolininae given in the above key necessitates the removal, from the group to which Kuwert applied this name, of the genus Episphenus and one oriental 4 species of the genus Tiberius, since these have no scars on the mem ius canton the mentum bears ridges which somewhat resemble the margins of primary scars and are perhaps homologous with the margins of secondary scars.
The form of these ridges is, however, quite unlike that of the secondary scars of any species of Gnaphalocneminae ; and the form of the anterior margin of the head is in itself sufficient to show that the insect does not belong to any genus of that subfamily. On the other hand, the primary scars are sometimes so feebly impressed in the genera Cetejus and Analaches, that it is possible they may sometimes be absent, in which case it would be almost impossible to separate certain species from the genus Episphenus The fact is that these three genera are none of them, probably, very remote from the common ancestor of both subfamilies, although the countries inhabited by the last are so widely separated from those inhabited by the first two see below pp.
The mentum of the genus Hyperplesthenus , Kuwert. The lateral and intermediate areas of the metasternum are, however, fused as in all other genera of the Hyperplesthenus group, a fusion which is not known to occur in any genus of Aceraiinae. See also appendix III,p. Oberthiir has shown me the type, which proves to belong to an Australian species, identified by comparison with the British Museum collection as Pharochilus dilatatus , Dalm.
Consequently these two genera may be separated from the Oriental Chilomazus and partly Oriental Epilaches. The subfamily Aceraiinae is almost entirely confined to the Oriental Region, and its distribution, as will be seen later pp. Concerning the correct form of the name of the genus whether Mastochilus or Mastochilus , see Zang, , p. Ill, Nilgiris, is almost certainly a synonym of Basilianus neelghevriensis 1 ; and, as the genus Basilianus is most unlikely to occur in the St. Cruz islands, the probability is either that there has been some mistake about the locality from which the only other species— E.
Consequently the genus Epilaches is not included in the following key. The genus Heterochilus , for which Zang , p. The genus Ophrygonius , Zang, is very close to Basilianus , Kaup; but as the characters by which the two are separated do undoubtedly distinguish all the Indian forms on the one hand from the only Malaysian form with which they could be confounded on the other, I have found it convenient to retain it.
Episphenus , Kaup ; pp. Chilomazus, Zang;,pp. The page-references given in this key refer to the pages of the present paper on which are described the first species of each of the genera as here defined. The shifting of the points of division between the genera has not necessitated any change in the order in which the species would have been described.
Gravely An Account of the Oriental Passalidae. Basilianus, Kaup ; pp. Aceraius, Kaup ; pp. All species of the subfamily Macrolinihae as defined here were placed by Kuwert in one or other of the genera Macrolinus and Tiberius. Zang a, p. It seems to me preferable, therefore, to reunite the genera 'Macrolinus and Tiberius.
The single genus thus formed may then be divided into groups of species as follows :— 1 Macrolinus urus and diuvenbodei from Celebes ; 2 M. The so- called African species, Tiberius caffer , of which I have examined the type, has proved to belong to the genus Pharochilus ; it is probably P. It is most abundantly represented in the Far Eastern part of the Indo-Australian area, and the following revision of its classification is based on the collections in the Berlin and Hamburg Museums, in which Pelopides and Tatius are the only genera that are not represented.
The classification of the Gnaphalocneminae has hitherto been based principally on the sculpturing of the mentum and of the anterior margin of the head. This sculpturing appears to be of primary importance, but it is very difficult to define some genera precisely with its help alone, and I have found it necessary to use also the structure of the mandibles. Without reference to this specimen I could not have determined the characteristics of the genus. Ill, mandibles. In the case of the Aceraiinae it was useless to introduce any reference to this character into the key to the genera, as these were found to be well defined and to form a linear series of increasing specialization.
Zang has attached great importance to the fusion of the anterior intermediate and lateral areas of the metasternum in certain genera of Gnaphalocneminae, and here we have another character, usually very sharply defined, which is most useful for the determination of these genera. I9I4-] F. The diagram indicates only the general course of the evolution of asymmetrical forms with reduced dentition, from symmetrical ones with complete dentition, as this is illustrated by the genera now in existence.
Many of the genera in the lower parts of the diagram are distinguished from those above, as well as from those below them, by characteristics peculiar to themselves ; and the diagram must not be taken to imply the actual descent of one genus from another now existing, but only from one the general characteristics of whose head and mandibles were very similar.
The Protomocoelus group, in spite of its possession of primary scars, appears to be related more closely than any other to the sub-family Aceraiinae. The affinities of the two remaining subfamilies of the second section of Oriental Passalidae, the Pleurariinae and Leptaulacinae, are more obscure: but it seems likely that the former is related to the Aceraiinae.
The genera of Gnaphalocneminae may be defined thus :— Primary scars almost always present 3 ; when absent, area between anterior part of left supra orbital ridge, and ridge joining left inner and outer tubercles, deeply excavate, the excavation bounded behind by a sharply defined ridge ; dentition of right mandible never more reduced than that of left.. See also following footnote.
In all the more highly specialized forms, and also in some less highly specialized, the excavation behind the anterior margin of the head is present on the left and often on both sides; and in these forms it supplies an excellent mark of- recognition; it faces more upwards and less forwards, and when well developed is much deeper than the somewhat similar hollow often found in the genus Gnaphalocnemis , Memoirs of the Indian Museum. Protomocoehis Ground 6. The asymmetrical species of the Protomocoelus group can easily be recognized by the form of the anterior margin of the head see Kuwert, , pi.
Some of the symmetrical forms, however, come very near certain members of the Kaupioloides group, but are smaller, with the upper surface of the head smoother and the middle part of its anterior margin usually somewhat more prominent and never very broad. The genus Kaupioloides seems to be almost exactly intermediate between the two groups in these characters, but, being itself very slightly asymmetrical, it is distinguished from all their symmetrical forms and many of their asymmetrical ones by the fusion of the lateral and intermediate areas of its metasternum.
Hamburg XXX, , p. Graved : An Account of the Oriental Passalidae. Gonatas GftfUp Hyperplesthenus Group These two genera cannot be sharply separated from one another, and should perhaps be regarded as sub-genera only. So I prefer to retain the name for the present. Zang , p. Ill, II Labienus , Kaup]. T rapezochilus , Zang; pp. Gnaphalocnemis , 7 Heller ; pp.
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An examination of the type specimen has enabled me to define the genus more precisely, and to find that Labienus gracilis, Heller Abh. Dresden xiii, 3, p. Of these the former is by far the larger, and Zang , p. The species belonging to it seem capable of arrangement. All species belonging to the first-mentioned end of this series apparently belong to the genus Leptaulax as restricted by Zang, and those belonging to the last-mentioned apparently belong to his new genus Leptaulacides; but as the character on which these genera are separated—the form of the parietal ridges of the head—is only once referred to by Kuwert, it is impossible to be quite certain whereabouts in the series the restricted genus Leptaulax ends and the new genus Leptaulacides begins.
The three accepted genera of L,eptaulacinae may be distinguished as follows: — Sides of elytra hairless.. Trichostigmus, Kaup, pp. One species of Gnaphalocnemis is known to iqe in which there is no depression between the left outer tubercle and supra-orbital ridge. This is described below under the name G. It further differs from other species of Gnaphalocnemis 'in the form of the outer tubercles, and in having the anterior intermediate and lateral areas of the metasternum very. A new genus may ultimately be required for its reception. Ill, Parietal ridges of head short arid laterally truncate, being separated from supra orbital ridge by a deep hollow; insects strongly and more extensively punctured..
Leptaulax , Kaup, pp. Parietal ridges long, laterally continuous with supra-orbital ridges; , insects sparsely and less extensively punctured.. For further geographical information regarding them, and also for all information regarding the synonymy adopted here, the sixth part of this paper should be referred to. But as full species I have only recognized forms differing in at least one constant and definite character, or combination of characters, from every other form known to me'.
Comacupes cavicornis, Kaup. Sinkep Island Moti Ram. Labrum about twice as wide as long, anterior margin slightly concave, angles rounded, sides slightly convergent behind. Upper tooth of mandibles weak, obtuse; anterior ower tooth conical, usually truncate or bifid at apex, that of left side partially fused to lower margin of lamelliform middle lower tooth.
Mentum hairy and coarsely punctured, with a strong median keel, which is obliquely truncate behind and extends into a slight prominence in middle of anterior margin. Pronotum without strong punctures except in the marginal groove, which is not interrupted before or behind in the middle-line, and is broader on the inner side of each rounded and slightly prominent anterior angle than elsewhere; sides parallel; posterior margin rounded; scars curved the concave face anterior , slightly oblique, with a single smaller round depression immediately in front of them.
Lateral plates of lower side of prothorax with hair-bearing punctures behind, and a few along outer margin in front. Mesothoracic plates punctured throughout with the exception of the posterior angles of the episterna; sternum covered with long hair; the rest of the mesothorax hairless. Second and third abdominal sterna covered with hair-bearing punctures all over, fourth to sixth at the sides. Tibiae of middle and hind legs each armed about two-thirds of the way down outer side with one spine.
Elytra somewhat punctured and very hairy in perfect specimens at the shoulders; all the grooves strongly punctured; the rest smooth. CAvicornis, var. I have examined three specimens of this form. Of these one has been kept in the Indian Museum, one has been returned to Sarawak, and one the type has gone to the British Museum. Differs from C. Stoliczka bequest, J.
Wood-Mason, etc. Ill, Description— Length mm. Comacupes stoliczkae, n.
This species is intermediate between C. Lahrum often nearly as long as it is wide, punctured, hairy, anterior margin approximately straight, angles strongly rounded, sides straight and parallel. Mandibles as in C. Head above and below also as in C. Prothorax as in C. Mesothorax also as in C. Metasternum differing from that of C. Abdominal sterna?
Posterior part of hind coxae punctured; middle tibiae armed with one spine about two-thirds of the way down; hind tibiae similarly armed, but with the spine usually very slightly smaller. Elytra sometimes with some small punctures along the lower side of the anterior half of the tenth rib; otherwise as in C. Labrum as in C. Mandibles also as in C.
Head somewhat more finely punctured, otherwise similar; central tubercle quite as prominent, not depressed at tip as in both C. Pronotum with anterior angles a little more prominent, sides slightly divergent behind; enlarged areas of anterior marginal groove rather abruptly terminated at their outer ends. Prothrorax ventrally as in C. Mesothorax y metasternum , elytra and legs also as in C. Comacupes cylindraceus Perty. Sarawak Museum. Rambe Sumatra in the Deutsches Kntomologishes Museum.
Under this name, as explained above p. But I also include everything referred by Zang to C. Head of a form of C. Ill, fig. The form of the anterior parts of the marginal groove of the pronotum and the puncturing of the abdominal sterna are both extremely variable. Taeniocerus bicanthatus Percheron. Labrum about twice as broad as long; anterior angles rounded, laterally prominent; anterior margin concave. Upper tooth of mandibles somewhat obtuse and not very prominent; uppermost terminal tooth obsolete; anterior lower tooth of left mandible wider than that of right; the former, and often the latter also, more or less bifid, the upper denticle being longer than the lower.
Mentum with a considerable angular prominence in middle of anterior margin; this prominence continued backwards to posterior margin as a hairless, and usually smooth and more or less hollowed, triangular area; lateral portions of mentum flattened, hairy and coarsely punctured. Scutellum more or less sparsely punctured in antero-lateral angles; oblique punctured band of mesotho- racic episterna very broad, covering almost the whole of the plate, posterior angles polished; anterior parts of lateral angles of mesosternum punctured, the rest smooth, middle-line marked by a broad and somewhat Y-shaped groove whose fork is directed forwards.
Metasternum unpunctured except in anterior angles, lateral areas not very broad behind. Abdominal sterna smooth and polished, unpunctured. Posterior coxae matt behind, not distinctly punctured. Tibiae of middle legs with one spur situated externally slightly beyond the middle; those of hind legs without these spurs. Elytra unpunctured except in the grooves. Taeniocerus pygmseus, Kaup. I have also examined two specimens from Kuching in the Sarawak Museum collection.
Labrum twice as broad as long behind, but three times as broad as long in front, the rounded anterior angles being much more prominent than in the preceding species. Upper tooth and uppermost terminal tooth of mandibles obsolete; anterior lower tooth conical, that of left side united by a ridge to middle lower tooth. Smooth central part of mentum broader in front than in preceding species, being distinctly pentagonal; mentum otherwise as in that species.
Head more or less finely roughened, except around central tubercle where it is smooth, and further back where it is punctured; central tubercle almost completely divided by a longitudinal groove into a pair of conical crests apically rectangular in profile; these crests obscurely joined together behind into a single horse-shoe shaped structure.
A slight hollow present on each side of central tubercle. Prothorax ventrally as in the preceding species. Scutellum entirely smooth except for usual finely punctured patch in middle of an lerror fnargin, or faintly grooved in middle-line immediately Memoirs of the Indian Museum. Ill, behind this patch; mesothoracic episterna crossed by oblique band of punctures or with their upper angles punctured throughout; mesosternum finely striatopunetate at sides in extreme front, otherwise smooth and polished, sometimes more or teas clearly grooved or keeled in the middle behind; metasternum as in the preceding species except that an obscure median longitudinal keel is present and the lateral areas are even smoother.
Abdominal sterna and hind coxae polished, unpunctured. Tibiae of middle legs with one blunt tooth slightly below the middle; those of hind legs without any such tooth. Lateral grooves of elytra distinctly punctured. Mr 1 1 i 1 14 19 1 1 14 5 14 14 14 " 14 18 14 19 9 19 19 19 14 18 Taeniocerus bicuspis, Kaup.
Sureil, Darjeeling District N. Rotung, Abor Country, ft.
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Upper Rotung, Abor Country, ft. Stevens coll. Labrum a. Mandibles as in T pygmaeus but with anterior lower tooth slightly more compressed. Mentum not unlike that of T pygmaeus , but with median prominence of anterior margin almost absent or entirely so, the central area being consequently quadrangular; distinctness of central area from adjoining parts somewhat variable as in specimens from the Darjeeling District especially it is apt to be punctured, and in extreme cases e. Head smooth, with a transverse patch of strong punctures at the back on each side behind supraorbital ridges.
Anterior margin bordered by a strong groove, slightly convex in the nfiddle and slightly concave on each side; meeting crest of supra-orbital ridge O F. Prothorax as in T pygmaeus , but with anterior angles of pronotum a little more prominent and sides approximately parallel. Metasternum as in T. Second and third abdominal sterna finely roughened throughout. Posterior coxae finely roughened behind; middle tibiae armed with one more or less strongly developed tooth or spine; hind tibiae with a very rudimentary tooth or unarmed.
Elytra with all grooves punctured, the ribs smooth. Aulacocyclus andrewesi, n. Described from a single specimen, collected by Mr, H. Andrewes in June from rotten timber in the Anamalai Hills at an altitude of feet; now in the collection of Mr.
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Labrum about twice as broad as long, anterior margin strongly concave, sides convergent behind, angles rounded and prominent. Mentuni punctured and hairy, with a smooth anterior prominence in middle which is medially grooved in front. Antennae with first two lamelliform lobes about four times as long as broad. Head above smooth and polished; anterior margin smooth above and hairy beneath, strongly concave in middle, slightly convex and very finely granular laterally, bordered by a strongly marked groove, meeting crest of supra-orbital ridge Memoirs of the Indian Museum.
Prothorax beneath much as in the following species. Scutellum smooth; mesothoracic episterna punctured above rather sparsely, except close to upper margin , smooth below and behind; mesosternum smooth and ptflished throughout. Metasternum faintly ridged in middle line, lateral areas somewhat broader behind than in front; lateral and anterior intermediate areas finely but not very closely punctured and hairy, the rest smooth and polished.
Second abdominal sternum somewhat rugose between posterior coxae and along middle of extreme posterior margin; succeeding abdominal sterna polished throughout. Tibiae of second legs armed with a small spine on the outer side about two-thirds down, those of the third pair with this spine obsolete.
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Ceracupes fronticornis Westwood. Gopaldhara, Rungbong Valley, Darjeeling District. Anterior margin of mentum not prominent in middle line, without marginal groove. Upper tooth of mandibles very long, straight, slender, bluntly pointed distally, flattened and rugosely striate above and on inner side, at least twice as long as terminal part of mandible, and often 1 This specimen seems to have been entered in our register originally under the No.
Head above smooth and polished. Lateral plates of lower surface of prothorax punctured and more or less hairy in front of the coxal cavities, smooth and hairless behind. Scutelhim more or less finely and sparsely punctured in front, otherwise smooth and polished. Mesothoracic episterna punctured throughout.
Mesosternum with strong median concavity behind, whose sides may be raised into ridges further forwards; punctured in front on either side of middle-line and beside lateral sutures, the rest of the surface being polished and smooth, or slightly rough in parts. Metasternnm with central area not defined except near posterior margin, and there but vaguely; anterior intermediate areas closely punctured; lateral areas rough, narrow throughout; central area and posterior intermediate areas smooth and polished. Posterior parts of hind coxae and scars of abdominal sterna including almost the whole of the second sternum roughened or indistinctly punctured.
Tibiae of middle legs with spines on the outer side before the apex, those of the hind legs with at most one such spine. All furrows of elytra distinctly punctured, ribs unpunctured. Pleurarius brachyphyllus, Stoliczka. India Stoliczka. Madras Museum. HI, Regd. Anamalais, ft. Anamalais, a.
J I Kalyana, Pandal, Anamalais, ft. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Nilgiri Hills Kulattupuzha, W. This species is represented in the collection of the Madras Museum by two specimens from the timber forest, Cochin State; and in that of the Bombay Natural History Society by a specimen from Palur presented by G. Whether the latter record refers to the town of that name situated in Arcot or in Chingalpat it appears to be the most easterly yet made. Labrum transverse; usually asymmetrical, the left angle being slightly more prominent than the right; anterior margin slightly concave. Mandibles with upper tooth obsolete; anterior lower tooth longitudinally constricted before and behind, and bifid at the tip, that of the left mandible being larger and that of the right mandible smaller than the tooth in front of it.
Mentum finely punctured in posterior angles and beside posterior end of broad median groove; the rest coarsely punctured. Lateral plates of lower surface of prothorax smooth and hairless in front and behind, closely punctured and very hairy between. Scutellum smooth, with a few fine new ones, for the numbers under which specimens seen by Stoliczka are entered in the register are.
Stoliczka and Mr. Of these four numbers only one has been found. This last specimen has been listed in the new register with the preceding specimen, and both have been entered as presents from the Madras Museum. Metasternum with central area more or less well, lateral areas ill, defined; latter very broad, often almost touching former; central and posterior intermediate areas smooth and polished; anterior intermediate and lateral areas punctured and hairy.
Anterior margin of posterior part of hind coxae depressed and roughened , abdominal sterna and rest of hind coxae smooth. Elytra hairless, innermost groove of each almost entirely smooth, remaining grooves strongly punctured. Annandale informs me that this species is probably not gregarious.
Bainbrigge Fletcher sent me specimens apparently obtained together with colonies of Basilianus , but he did not get many so probably they were living singly or in pairs with the other species. For the classification of this subfamily which is adopted here see Appendix I below, p. Tiberioides kuwerti Arrow. Labrum as long as or somewhat longer than broad; sides straight, parallel; anterior margin concave; angles rounded, left one frequently somewhat sharper and a little further removed from deepest point of concavity than right one. Mandibles with upper tooth very feebly developed, anterior lower tooth consisting of a small anterior conical portion that of the left side being truncate and that of the right pointed and a still less prominent posterior portion.
Anterior margin of median part of mentum with slight often almost imperceptible hollow in middle; lateral parts punctured evenly all over as a rule. Upper surface of head roughened, central tubercle extending back as a low mound between, and sometimes not clearly separated from, low rounded parietal ridges which extend outwards and are scarcely if at all crested.
Inner tubercles almost equidistant from each other, from outer tubercles, and from central tubercle; ridge joining inner tubercles to each other and to outer tubercles forming single continuous curve when viewed from above. Outer tubercles with two widely separated rectangular apices one above the other. Supra-orbital ridges very broad and smoothly rounded behind, not peaked, hollowed out in front so that each forms two narrower divergent ridges of which the outer one extends to the anterior angle of the head.
Anterior 2l6 Memoirs of the Indian Museum. Lateral plates of under side of prothotaX as in preceding species. Mesothorax polished above, but dull below; scutellum smooth; episternum with normal oblique band of punctures. Mesosternum with or without very indistinct scars. Metasternum with central area distinct, vaguely grooved in the middle line, more or less distinctly in contact with smooth, strongly defined, oblique ridges bounding lateral areas; lateral and anterior intermediate areas rugosely punctured and hairy; posterior intermediate areas polished, more or less scarred by large punctures in places especially on the inner side in front.
Posterior margin of hind coxae finely, often indistinctly, punctured and hairy. Second abdominal sternum irregularly marked with indistinct coarse punctures; succeeding sterna smooth. Elytra flattened above, hairless; lateral grooves much wider than ridges between them, their regularly arranged punctures drawn out into transverse furrows; dorsal grooves normal, two or three innermost on each side unpunctured at least in front.
Tiberioides austeni, n. Dafla Expedition H. God win-Austen. Dikrang Valley 1 H. Kalek, Abor Country, ft. Antennae more massive. Upper tooth of mandibles more strongly, developed, especially that of the left side.
Mentum with anterior margin of median area evenly convex or a little prominent 2 never excavate in the middle, extreme anterior angles of lateral areas smooth and unpunctured. Head with inner tubercles larger and thicker and directed more definitely forwards; ridge joining them to outer turbercles also stouter, not forming so continuous a curve with ridge joining them to one another; distal margin of outer tubercles of Abor specimens slightly convex as seen from side instead of concave. Punctures of mesothoracic episternum extending further into upper front angle as in Pleurarius brachyphyllus ; mesosternum with very distinct scars which are broad in front and taper out behind.
Hind coxae unpunctured; second abdominal sternum somewhat smoother; elvtra with grooves uniformly narrow and punctured both above and at the sides. Kemp informs me that the two specimens of this species that he Regd. Episphenus moorei, Kaup. Ceylon H. Labrum broader than long, anterior margin straight or faintly concave, very slightly oblique, sides straight or slightly curved, angles rounded, the left one being somewhat sharper than the right. Mandibles with upper tooth distinct but very small; anterior lower tooth conical, simple on both sides, that of the left side a little larger than that of the right.
Lower anterior margin of central part of mentum strongly convex, whole surface elevated in front in middle line, but not separated by groove from surrounding surface. Head smooth or with extremely fine microscopic punctures, except between outer tubercles, where it is marked with large, but somewhat indistinct punctures. Apex of outer tubercles as seen from side vertically truncate, but scarcely forked ; ridges connecting inner and outer tubercles defined on outer side by strong groove. Central tubercle extending backwards between parietal ridges, which extend outwards and, like the supra-orbital ridges, are more distinctly crested than in the preceding species though less so than in E.
Pronotum smooth, polished, marginal groove fine, incomplete across middle-line both before and behind, median groove complete or obsolete in front; scars small, linear, indistinctly punctured, nearly vertical. Prothorax beneath as in preceding species Scutellum smooth and polished. Mesothoracic episterna punctured beside anterior margin below, and beside oblique dorsal margin, these two patches of punctures sometimes joined by an oblique sparsely punctured band.
Ill, roughened scars; surface of mesosternum bordering these scars on inner sidfe very highly polished, remaining triangular portion behind and between them finely roughened. Metasternum with central area clearly defined, widely separated from lateral areas, which are almost parallel-sided and rather narrow; lateral and anterior intermediate areas closely punctured and hairy; posterior intermediate areas divided diagonally into an inner posterior very coarsely punctured part and an outer anterior smooth or very sparsely and more finely punctured part, hairless except along the closely but more finely punctured posterior margin.
Posterior parts of hind coxae and scars of abdominal sterna closely and finely punctured. Elytra hairless, entirely smooth with exception of grooves, which are all of equal width and of which the outer ones are clearly punctured. Episphenus pearsoni, n. I have also examined two specimens from the same locality which remain in the Colombo Museum collection. Differs from E. Episphenus comptoni, Kuwert. Hakgala, 2, Cent. Ceylon British Museum. Anterior margin of labrum- strongly concave, sides parallel or slightly convergent behind, angles round, left one usually somewhat more prominent and sharper than right.
Mandibles with upper tooth obsolete; anterior lower tooth much reduced, consisting of a small conical projection on left 1 Mr. The altitude is not recorded, but is I believe about ft. Green informs me that the altitude of the Hakgala Botanical Gardens is ft. Mentum as described in definition of Chilomazus tp. Head polished, punctured in front of and behind parietal ridges.
Left outer tubercle slightly more prominent than right; profile of former obliquely, of latter almost vertically truncate at apex; ridge connecting outer and inner tubercles not defined by a groove parallel to it. Anterior angles of head approximating to 0 , but not altogether constant; canthus rounded at its extremity. Prothorax as in Episphenus moorei , but frequently with a group of strong punctures at upper end of scar on each side of pronotum; lateral plates of lower surface not quite so perfectly smooth in front.
Scutellum indistinctly punctured in anterior angles, often obscurely grooved in middle line in front-, posterior angle smooth. Mesothoracic episterna punctured above and along extreme anterior margin; below smooth, or obscurely punctured in posterior angles.
Related Memoirs from the Underside, Volume Four
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