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The Fatimid state was too weak to attempt a punitive expedition; The Viceroy, el-Mu'izz, also found another means of revenge. Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Bedouin tribes expelled from Arabia for their disruption and turbulent influence, both Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym among others, whose presence disrupted farmers in the Nile Valley since the nomads would often loot. The then Fatimid vizier devised to relinquish control of the Maghreb and obtained the agreement of his sovereign. This not only prompted the Bedouins to leave, but the Fatimid treasury even gave them a light expatriation cash allowance.

Whole tribes set off with women, children, ancestors, animals and camping equipment. Some stopped on the way, especially in Cyrenaica , where they are still one of the essential elements of the settlement but most arrived in Ifriqiya by the Gabes region. The Zirid ruler tried to stop this rising tide, but with each encounter, the last under the walls of Kairouan , his troops were defeated and the Arabs remained masters of the field.

The flood was still rising, and in , the Arabs spread on the high plains of Constantine where they gradually choked Qalaa of Banu Hammad , as they had done in Kairouan a few decades ago. From there they gradually gained the upper Algiers and Oran plains. Some were forcibly taken by the Almohads in the second half of the 12th century.

We can say that in the 13th century the Arabs were in all of North Africa , with the exception of the main mountain ranges and certain coastal regions which remained entirely Berber. In the early 16th century, Spain constructed fortified outposts presidios on or near the Algerian coast. In the same year, a few merchants of Algiers ceded one of the rocky islets in their harbour to Spain, which built a fort on it.

The presidios in North Africa turned out to be a costly and largely ineffective military endeavour that did not guarantee access for Spain's merchant fleet. The region of Algeria was partially ruled by Ottomans for three centuries from to In the Turkish privateer brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa , who operated successfully under the Hafsids , moved their base of operations to Algiers. They succeeded in conquering Jijel and Algiers from the Spaniards but eventually assumed control over the city and the surrounding region, forcing the previous ruler, Abu Hamo Musa III of the Bani Ziyad dynasty, to flee.

When Aruj was killed in during his invasion of Tlemcen , Hayreddin succeeded him as military commander of Algiers. The Ottoman sultan gave him the title of beylerbey and a contingent of some 2, janissaries. With the aid of this force, Hayreddin conquered the whole area between Constantine and Oran although the city of Oran remained in Spanish hands until The next beylerbey was Hayreddin's son Hasan , who assumed the position in Until the area was governed by officers who served terms with no fixed limits.

Subsequently, with the institution of a regular Ottoman administration, governors with the title of pasha ruled for three-year terms. The pasha was assisted by janissaries, known in Algeria as the ojaq and led by an agha. Discontent among the ojaq rose in the mids because they were not paid regularly, and they repeatedly revolted against the pasha. As a result, the agha charged the pasha with corruption and incompetence and seized power in Plague had repeatedly struck the cities of North Africa.


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Algiers lost from 30, to 50, inhabitants to the plague in —21, and suffered high fatalities in —57, , and — In , the taifa rebelled, killed the agha, and placed one of its own in power. The new leader received the title of Dey. After , the right to select the dey passed to the divan , a council of some sixty nobles.

It was at first dominated by the ojaq ; but by the 18th century, it had become the dey's instrument. In , the dey persuaded the sultan to recognise him and his successors as regent, replacing the pasha in that role, although Algiers remained a part of the Ottoman Empire. The dey was in effect a constitutional autocrat. The dey was elected for a life term, but in the years — that the system survived, fourteen of the twenty-nine deys were assassinated.

Despite usurpation, military coups and occasional mob rule, the day-to-day operation of Ottoman government was remarkably orderly.

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Although the regency patronised the tribal chieftains, it never had the unanimous allegiance of the countryside, where heavy taxation frequently provoked unrest. Autonomous tribal states were tolerated, and the regency's authority was seldom applied in the Kabylie. The Barbary pirates preyed on Christian and other non-Islamic shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea.

According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured 1 million to 1. Barbary pirates often attacked the Balearic Islands. The threat was so severe that residents abandoned the island of Formentera. Until the 17th century the Barbary pirates used galleys, but a Dutch renegade of the name of Zymen Danseker taught them the advantage of using sailing ships. Some of the slaves brought to Algiers were later ransomed back to Iceland, but some chose to stay in Algeria. In pirate ships from Algeria raided the Faroe Islands. Barbary raids in the Mediterranean continued to attack Spanish merchant shipping, and as a result, the Spanish Navy bombarded Algiers in and Over 20, cannonballs were fired, much of the city and its fortifications were destroyed and most of the Algerian fleet was sunk.

In the 19th century, the pirates forged affiliations with Caribbean powers, paying a "licence tax" in exchange for safe harbour of their vessels. After a nine-hour bombardment, they obtained a treaty from the Dey that reaffirmed the conditions imposed by Captain later Commodore Stephen Decatur U. Navy concerning the demands of tributes. In addition, the Dey agreed to end the practice of enslaving Christians.

Despite being removed from Algeria in the 19th century, Spain retained a presence in Morocco. Algeria consistently opposed Spanish fortresses and control in nearby Morocco through the 20th century. Under the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded and captured Algiers in The war had killed approximately , indigenous Algerians since A combination of violence and disease epidemics caused the indigenous Algerian population to decline by nearly one-third from to As a consequence, French government favored the Kabyles.

One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants , who became known as colons and later, as Pied-Noirs. Between and , 50, French people emigrated to Algeria. During the late 19th and early 20th century; the European share was almost a fifth of the population. The French government aimed at making Algeria an assimilated part of France, and this included substantial educational investments especially after The indigenous cultural and religious resistance heavily opposed this tendency, but in contrast to the other colonised countries' path in central Asia and Caucasus, Algeria kept its individual skills and a relatively human-capital intensive agriculture.

Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population, which lacked political and economic status in the colonial system, gave rise to demands for greater political autonomy and eventually independence from France. Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in , when the first violent events of what was later called the Algerian War began. The war led to the death of hundreds of thousands of Algerians and hundreds of thousands of injuries.

Horne estimated Algerian casualties during the span of eight years to be around , The war against French rule concluded in , when Algeria gained complete independence following the March Evian agreements and the July self-determination referendum. The number of European Pied-Noirs who fled Algeria totaled more than , between and Morocco's claim to portions of western Algeria led to the Sand War in But, he relied much more on the army for his support, and reduced the sole legal party to a symbolic role.

He collectivised agriculture and launched a massive industrialization drive. Oil extraction facilities were nationalised. This was especially beneficial to the leadership after the international oil crisis. In the s and s under President Houari Boumediene, Algeria pursued a program of industrialization within a state-controlled socialist economy.

Boumediene's successor, Chadli Bendjedid , introduced some liberal economic reforms. He promoted a policy of Arabisation in Algerian society and public life. Teachers of Arabic, brought in from other Muslim countries, spread conventional Islamic thought in schools and sowed the seeds of a return to Orthodox Islam. The Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil, leading to hardship when the price collapsed during the s oil glut.

In December the Islamic Salvation Front dominated the first of two rounds of legislative elections. Fearing the election of an Islamist government, the authorities intervened on 11 January , cancelling the elections. Bendjedid resigned and a High Council of State was installed to act as the Presidency. It banned the FIS, triggering a civil insurgency between the Front's armed wing, the Armed Islamic Group , and the national armed forces, in which more than , people are thought to have died.

The Islamist militants conducted a violent campaign of civilian massacres. The Armed Islamic Group declared a ceasefire in October Algeria held elections in , considered biased by international observers and most opposition groups [78] which were won by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. He worked to restore political stability to the country and announced a "Civil Concord" initiative, approved in a referendum , under which many political prisoners were pardoned, and several thousand members of armed groups were granted exemption from prosecution under a limited amnesty, in force until 13 January The AIS disbanded and levels of insurgent violence fell rapidly.

Bouteflika was re-elected in the April presidential election after campaigning on a programme of national reconciliation. The programme comprised economic, institutional, political and social reform to modernise the country, raise living standards, and tackle the causes of alienation. It also included a second amnesty initiative, the Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation , which was approved in a referendum in September It offered amnesty to most guerrillas and Government security forces. In November , the Algerian Constitution was amended following a vote in Parliament, removing the two-term limit on Presidential incumbents.

This change enabled Bouteflika to stand for re-election in the presidential elections , and he was re-elected in April A continuing series of protests throughout the country started on 28 December , inspired by similar protests across the Middle East and North Africa. On 24 February , the government lifted Algeria's year-old state of emergency. On 2 April , Bouteflika resigned from the presidency. Since the breakup of Sudan , Algeria has been the largest country in Africa, and the Mediterranean Basin. Its southern part includes a significant portion of the Sahara.

To the north, the Tell Atlas form with the Saharan Atlas , further south, two parallel sets of reliefs in approaching eastbound, and between which are inserted vast plains and highlands. Both Atlas tend to merge in eastern Algeria. The vast mountain ranges of Aures and Nememcha occupy the entire northeastern Algeria and are delineated by the Tunisian border. The highest point is Mount Tahat 3, m. Most of the coastal area is hilly, sometimes even mountainous, and there are a few natural harbours. The area from the coast to the Tell Atlas is fertile. South of the Tell Atlas is a steppe landscape ending with the Saharan Atlas ; farther south, there is the Sahara desert.

Algiers, Oran , Constantine , and Annaba are Algeria's main cities. In this region, midday desert temperatures can be hot year round. After sunset, however, the clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly. Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded. Farther inland, the rainfall is less plentiful. Algeria also has ergs , or sand dunes, between mountains.

Among these, in the summer time when winds are heavy and gusty, temperatures can get up to The varied vegetation of Algeria includes coastal , mountainous and grassy desert -like regions which all support a wide range of wildlife. Many of the creatures comprising the Algerian wildlife live in close proximity to civilization. The most commonly seen animals include the wild boars , jackals , and gazelles , although it is not uncommon to spot fennecs foxes , and jerboas.

Algeria also has a small African leopard and Saharan cheetah population, but these are seldom seen. A species of deer, the Barbary stag , inhabits the dense humid forests in the north-eastern areas. A variety of bird species makes the country an attraction for bird watchers. The forests are inhabited by boars and jackals. Barbary macaques are the sole native monkey.

Snakes, monitor lizards , and numerous other reptiles can be found living among an array of rodents throughout the semi arid regions of Algeria. Many animals are now extinct, including the Barbary lions , Atlas bears and crocodiles. In the north, some of the native flora includes Macchia scrub, olive trees , oaks , cedars and other conifers. The mountain regions contain large forests of evergreens Aleppo pine , juniper , and evergreen oak and some deciduous trees. Fig , eucalyptus , agave , and various palm trees grow in the warmer areas. The grape vine is indigenous to the coast.

In the Sahara region, some oases have palm trees. Acacias with wild olives are the predominant flora in the remainder of the Sahara. Camels are used extensively; the desert also abounds with venomous and nonvenomous snakes, scorpions , and numerous insects. Elected politicians have relatively little sway over Algeria. After the death of General Larbi Belkheir , Bouteflika put loyalists in key posts, notably at Sonatrach , and secured constitutional amendments that make him re-electable indefinitely. The head of state is the President of Algeria , who is elected for a five-year term.

The president was formerly limited to two five-year terms, but a constitutional amendment passed by the Parliament on 11 November removed this limitation. Algeria has universal suffrage at 18 years of age. He appoints the Prime Minister who is also the head of government. In addition, political campaigns must be exempt from the aforementioned subjects. Parliamentary elections were last held in May , and were judged to be largely free by international monitors, though local groups alleged fraud and irregularities. Giving incentives and rewarding best performers, as well as offering funds in a faster and more flexible manner, are the two main principles underlying the European Neighbourhood Instrument ENI that came into force in In , the French government agreed to compensate victims of nuclear tests in Algeria.

Defense Minister Herve Morin stated that "It's time for our country to be at peace with itself, at peace thanks to a system of compensation and reparations," when presenting the draft law on the payouts. Algerian officials and activists believe that this is a good first step and hope that this move would encourage broader reparation. Tensions between Algeria and Morocco in relation to the Western Sahara have been an obstacle to tightening the Arab Maghreb Union , nominally established in , but which has carried little practical weight.

Total military personnel include , active, , reserve, and , paramilitary staff estimate. Russia is also building two type diesel submarines for Algeria. Algeria has been categorized by Freedom House as "not free" since it began publishing such ratings in , with the exception of , , and , when the country was labeled "partly free. It clarified that the Algerian government imposed restriction on freedom of the press ; expression; and right to peaceful demonstration, protest and assembly as well as intensified censorship of the media and websites. Due to the fact that the journalists and activists criticize the ruling government, some media organizations' licenses are canceled.

Independent and autonomous trade unions face routine harassment from the government, with many leaders imprisoned and protests suppressed. In a number of unions, many of which were involved in the — Algerian Protests, have been deregistered by the government. Homosexuality is illegal in Algeria. Each province, district, and municipality is named after its seat , which is usually the largest city. The administrative divisions have changed several times since independence. When introducing new provinces, the numbers of old provinces are kept, hence the non-alphabetical order.

With their official numbers, currently since they are [5]. Algeria is classified as an upper middle income country by the World Bank.

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The economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. In recent years, the Algerian government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. The government's efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages.

The Algerian economy grew by 2. If hydrocarbons are excluded, growth has been estimated at 4. The current-account surplus is estimated at 9. Algeria has not joined the WTO , despite several years of negotiations. Algeria, whose economy is reliant on petroleum, has been an OPEC member since Its crude oil production stands at around 1. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. The U. To cope with social demands, the authorities raised expenditure, especially on basic food support, employment creation, support for SMEs, and higher salaries.

High hydrocarbon prices have improved the current account and the already large international reserves position. Income from oil and gas rose in as a result of continuing high oil prices, though the trend in production volume is downwards. The Algerian national oil company is Sonatrach , which plays a key role in all aspects of the oil and natural gas sectors in Algeria. All foreign operators must work in partnership with Sonatrach, which usually has majority ownership in production-sharing agreements.

Algeria has invested an estimated billion dinars towards developing research facilities and paying researchers. This development program is meant to advance alternative energy production, especially solar and wind power. Currently, Algeria has 20, research professors at various universities and over research labs, with state-set goals to expand to 1, Besides solar energy, areas of research in Algeria include space and satellite telecommunications, nuclear power and medical research.

Despite a decline in total unemployment , youth and women unemployment is high. The development of the tourism sector in Algeria had previously been hampered by a lack of facilities, but since a broad tourism development strategy has been implemented resulting in many hotels of a high modern standard being built. This network will be complemented by the East-West Highway , a major infrastructure project currently under construction. Algeria is also crossed by the Trans-Sahara Highway , which is now completely paved. This road is supported by the Algerian government to increase trade between the six countries crossed: Algeria, Mali , Niger , Nigeria , Chad , and Tunisia.

In January Algeria's population was an estimated Increasingly, women are contributing more to household income than men. Between 90, and , Sahrawis from Western Sahara live in the Sahrawi refugee camps , [] [] in the western Algerian Sahara desert. The largest concentration of Algerian migrants outside Algeria is in France, which has reportedly over 1.

Despite the dominance of the Berber culture and ethnicity in Algeria, the majority of Algerians identify with an Arabic-based identity, especially after the Arab nationalism rising in the 20th century. The largest of these are the Kabyles, who live in the Kabylie region east of Algiers, the Chaoui of Northeast Algeria, the Tuaregs in the southern desert and the Shenwa people of North Algeria.

They were primarily of French, Spanish and Italian origin. Almost all of this population left during the war of independence or immediately after its end. Modern Standard Arabic and Berber are the official languages. Colloquial Algerian Arabic is heavily infused with borrowings from French and Berber. Berber has been recognized as a "national language" by the constitutional amendment of 8 May In February , the Algerian constitution passed a resolution that would make Berber an official language alongside Arabic.

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Although French has no official status, Algeria is the second-largest Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers, [] and French is widely used in government, media newspapers, radio, local television , and both the education system from primary school onwards and academia due to Algeria's colonial history. It can be regarded as a lingua franca of Algeria. In , After an earlier period during which the Algerian government tried to phase out French which is why it has no official status , in recent decades the government has backtracked and reinforced the study of French and television programs have reinforced use of the language.

Algeria emerged as a bilingual state after Modern Algerian literature, split between Arabic , Tamazight and French , has been strongly influenced by the country's recent history. Among the important novelists of the s were Rachid Mimouni , later vice-president of Amnesty International , and Tahar Djaout , murdered by an Islamist group in for his secularist views. The works of the Sanusi family in pre-colonial times, and of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times, are widely noted.

Contemporary Algerian cinema is various in terms of genre, exploring a wider range of themes and issues. There has been a transition from cinema which focused on the war of independence to films more concerned with the everyday lives of Algerians. Algerian painters, like Mohamed Racim or Baya, attempted to revive the prestigious Algerian past prior to French colonization, at the same time that they have contributed to the preservation of the authentic values of Algeria. In this line, Mohamed Temam , Abdelkhader Houamel have also returned through this art, scenes from the history of the country, the habits and customs of the past and the country life.


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  • Other new artistic currents including the one of M'hamed Issiakhem , Mohammed Khadda and Bachir Yelles , appeared on the scene of Algerian painting, abandoning figurative classical painting to find new pictorial ways, in order to adapt Algerian paintings to the new realities of the country through its struggle and its aspirations. Mohammed Khadda [] and M'hamed Issiakhem have been notable in recent years. The historic roots of Algerian literature go back to the Numidian and Roman African era, when Apuleius wrote The Golden Ass , the only Latin novel to survive in its entirety.

    The Middle Ages have known many Arabic writers who revolutionized the Arab world literature, with authors like Ahmad al-Buni , Ibn Manzur and Ibn Khaldoun , who wrote the Muqaddimah while staying in Algeria, and many others. In he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. Today Algeria contains, in its literary landscape, big names having not only marked the Algerian literature, but also the universal literary heritage in Arabic and French. As a first step, Algerian literature was marked by works whose main concern was the assertion of the Algerian national entity, there is the publication of novels as the Algerian trilogy of Mohammed Dib , or even Nedjma of Kateb Yacine novel which is often regarded as a monumental and major work.

    In the aftermath of the independence, several new authors emerged on the Algerian literary scene, they will attempt through their works to expose a number of social problems, among them there are Rachid Boudjedra , Rachid Mimouni , Leila Sebbar , Tahar Djaout and Tahir Wattar. Currently, a part of Algerian writers tends to be defined in a literature of shocking expression, due to the terrorism that occurred during the s, the other party is defined in a different style of literature who staged an individualistic conception of the human adventure.

    Among the most noted recent works, there is the writer, the swallows of Kabul and the attack of Yasmina Khadra , the oath of barbarians of Boualem Sansal , memory of the flesh of Ahlam Mosteghanemi and the last novel by Assia Djebar nowhere in my father's House. Rahaba music style is unique to the Aures. Souad Massi is a rising Algerian folk singer. Tergui music is sung in Tuareg languages generally, Tinariwen had a worldwide success. Rap , a relatively recent style in Algeria, is experiencing significant growth. In mid, AARC had already supported a total of 78 films, including 42 feature films, 6 short films and 30 documentaries.

    Days of Glory and Outside the Law recorded the highest number of admissions in the European Union, 3,, and ,, respectively. Various games have existed in Algeria since antiquity.


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    • In the Aures , people played several games such as El Kherba or El khergueba chess variant. Playing cards, checkers and chess games are part of Algerian culture. Racing fantasia and rifle shooting are part of cultural recreation of the Algerians. Several men and women were champions in athletics in the s including Noureddine Morceli , Hassiba Boulmerka , Nouria Merah-Benida , and Taoufik Makhloufi , all specialized in middle-distance running. Football is the most popular sport in Algeria. The Algerian Football Federation is an association of Algeria football clubs organizing national competitions and international matches of the selection of Algeria national football team.

      Algerian cuisine is rich and diverse. The country was considered as the "granary of Rome". It offers a component of dishes and varied dishes, depending on the region and according to the seasons. The cuisine uses cereals as the main products, since they are always produced with abundance in the country. There is not a dish where cereals are not present. Algerian cuisine varies from one region to another, according to seasonal vegetables. It can be prepared using meat, fish and vegetables. Among the dishes known, couscous , [] chorba , rechta, chakhchoukha, berkoukes, shakshouka, mthewem, chtitha, mderbel, dolma, brik or bourek, garantita, lham'hlou, etc.

      Merguez sausage is widely used in Algeria, but it differs, depending on the region and on the added spices. Cakes are marketed and can be found in cities either in Algeria, in Europe or North America. However, traditional cakes are also made at home, following the habits and customs of each family. Algerian pastry also contains Tunisian or French cakes. Marketed and home-made bread products include varieties such as Kessra or Khmira or Harchaya, chopsticks and so-called washers Khoubz dar or Matloue.

      Other traditional meals sold often as street food include mhadjeb or mahjouba, karantika, doubara, chakhchoukha, hassouna, and t'chicha. In , Algeria had inadequate numbers of physicians 1. According to the World Bank, Algeria is making progress toward its goal of "reducing by half the number of people without sustainable access to improved drinking water and basic sanitation by ". Given Algeria's young population, policy favors preventive health care and clinics over hospitals.

      In keeping with this policy, the government maintains an immunization program. However, poor sanitation and unclean water still cause tuberculosis , hepatitis , measles , typhoid fever , cholera and dysentery. The poor generally receive health care free of charge. Health records have been maintained in Algeria since and began adding Muslims living in the south to their vital record database in during French rule.

      Since the s, in a centralized system that was designed to significantly reduce the rate of illiteracy, the Algerian government introduced a decree by which school attendance became compulsory for all children aged between 6 and 15 years who have the ability to track their learning through the 20 facilities built since independence, now the literacy rate is around Since , Arabic is used as the language of instruction during the first nine years of schooling.

      From the third year, French is taught and it is also the language of instruction for science classes. The students can also learn English, Italian, Spanish and German. In , new programs at the elementary appeared, therefore the compulsory schooling does not start at the age of six anymore, but at the age of five. After nine years of primary school, students can go to the high school or to an educational institution. The school offers two programs: general or technical.

      At the end of the third year of secondary school, students pass the exam of the baccalaureate, which allows once it is successful to pursue graduate studies in universities and institutes. Education is officially compulsory for children between the ages of six and In , the illiteracy rate for people over 10 was The province with the lowest rate of illiteracy was Algiers Province at Algeria has 26 universities and 67 institutions of higher education, which must accommodate a million Algerians and 80, foreign students in The University of Algiers , founded in , is the oldest, it offers education in various disciplines law, medicine, science and letters.

      Even if some of them offer instruction in Arabic like areas of law and the economy, most of the other sectors as science and medicine continue to be provided in French and English. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in North Africa. Arabic [3] Berber [4]. Part of a series on the. Middle Ages. Modern times. Contemporary era. Related topics.

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      Main article: History of Algeria. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Masinissa c. Jugurtha c. Main article: Medieval Muslim Algeria.

      Main article: Banu Hilal. Main article: Ottoman Algeria. Main articles: French Algeria and Algerian War. See also: French North Africa. Main article: History of Algeria — Main article: Algerian Civil War. Main article: Geography of Algeria. Main article: Climate of Algeria. Main article: Wildlife of Algeria.

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      Main article: Politics of Algeria. Main article: Foreign relations of Algeria. Main article: Military of Algeria. Main article: Human rights in Algeria. Main article: Economy of Algeria. See also: Mining industry of Algeria. Main article: Tourism in Algeria. Main article: Transport in Algeria. Main article: Demographics of Algeria. Main article: Ethnic groups in Algeria. Main article: Languages of Algeria.

      See also: French language in Algeria. Main article: Religion in Algeria. See also: Early African Church. See also: History of the Jews in Algeria. Main article: List of cities in Algeria. Largest cities or towns in Algeria According to the Census []. Main article: Culture of Algeria. Main article: Media of Algeria. Main articles: Algerian literature and List of Algerian writers.

      Main article: Music of Algeria. Main article: Cinema of Algeria. Main article: Sport in Algeria. Main article: Algerian cuisine. Main article: Health in Algeria. Main articles: Education in Algeria and List of universities in Algeria. Africa portal. Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 25 July Algeria Press Service. Archived from the original PDF on 22 May Retrieved 6 January Central Intelligence Agency.

      Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 24 December Le Monde. Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 15 April — via Le Monde. Office National des Statistiques in French. Archived from the original on 6 March International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 1 September World Bank. Arthur Andersen was the first to act. Only Deloitte claimed that it had no intention of extending to the United Kingdom Lawyer a ; Hoult As the accountancy firms trained their sights on the world's most important legal market—the United States—they undertook additional steps designed to give their legal networks legitimacy with both clients and regulators.

      The strategy behind this shift in organization and recruiting was simple: look as much like a traditional law firm as possible Garth To accomplish this goal, the Big Five were willing to invest huge amounts of money to recruit top lawyers Lawyer ; Law Society Gazette The result was a concerted public relations campaign to portray the Big Five legal networks as just more top firms—only bigger Landwell Based on a rendition of what it considered the core values of the legal profession—conflict of interest, independence, and client privilege—in , the American Bar Association's House of Delegates rejected the recommendation of its own Commission on Multidisciplinary Practices that the Model Rules of Professional Conduct be amended to permit integrated MDPs Paton Following SOX, similar laws prohibiting the provision of specific nonaudit services by a public company's auditor were enacted in many countries worldwide, including Mexico, Germany, China, Japan, France, Australia, and Canada Tafara The immediate aftermath of SOX appeared to provide ample support for this gloomy assessment.

      The logic behind these actions seemed both impeccable and indisputable. Moreover, law firms have themselves become more global in recent years and many do not need the accountancy giants' international reach.

      Paolo Michele Patocchi

      But as the old saw goes, predictions are hard—especially about the future. To investigate the current state of the Big Four's legal networks, we examined the corporate Web sites of the Big Four and their affiliated and strategic partner law firms over several years. We collected the following data from these sources: location where legal services were promoted—global site, regional site, and individual country site; firm mentioned on the Web as providing legal services—if any; the Web path to access legal services; the list of law practices on offer; and the general textual description of the legal services.

      One author conducted the actual exploration of the Web sites using the same IP address to assure consistency in the criteria used for data collection.

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      Although the textual information provided on the Web sites was taken into account, the analysis is largely descriptive and relies heavily on the use of frequencies and percentages. Following Meyer , this section can be categorized as descriptive of information available through the corporate Web sites of the Big Four and their affiliated or associated law firms.

      First, the pwc. The same process described above for the analysis of legal practices at a global level was followed with regard to each one of the visited sites. As the data underscore, our research methodology uncovered a wealth of information about how the Big Four have presented their legal networks in the years since SOX see Appendix 1. What this kind of study cannot tell us, however, is whether what the Big Four say about their legal networks is in fact true. We therefore make no representation, for example, about whether the legal services that the Big Four claim to offer in any particular legal market are, in fact, being delivered, or whether their legal work is of high quality.

      Nevertheless, given the data we report about what the Big Four are saying about the rapid growth in the size, sophistication, and geographic scope of their legal networks—and about the monetary and human resources they are devoting to building this capability—it would be surprising if what these large and sophisticated players are presenting on their Web sites does not bear some important connection to reality. At a minimum, the Web presence we document reveals the Big Four's ambitions for their legal services arms—as well as what they think will appeal to potential clients.

      The rich data collected in our study reveal three major trends that have allowed the Big Four to reemerge as major players in the market for legal services: 1 the rebuilding, expansion, and diversification of their practice expertise beyond tax law, and their regional coverage beyond Europe; 2 the structuring of legal practices through the most highly integrated form of MDP in order to enhance the provision of truly integrated legal services and innovative business solutions; and, emboldened by the success of these moves, 3 the increasing global visibility given to their expertise in law.

      More importantly, the Big Four claimed to be offering a wide range of legal services in a majority of these countries. As the Web site trumpets, jointly these resources allow for the provision of solutions that are not just multidisciplinary, but that are also tailored for each client's business, and are provided in the most effective and efficient way.

      Table 2 also underscores a trend toward the geographic expansion and regional diversification of these practices into the emerging markets. By March , PwC, Deloitte, and KPMG had all established legal practices in a significant number of countries in Central and South America, and Africa—including in many countries where global law firms were just beginning to establish offices Harris This trend toward global expansion is even more evident when one includes those NLP countries where there is only some reference to the provision of legal services shown on a Big Four corporate Web site.

      However, in direct contrast with the growth strategy embraced in the decade prior to SOX, which emphasized the separation of the accountancy and legal practices, by each of the Big Four had moved significantly toward integrating its legal practices within its MDP structure. As Table 4 illustrates, as of March three of the Big Four—PwC 56 percent , Deloitte 65 percent , and KPMG 59 percent —showed a majority of their FLPs on the Web with no mention of any particular freestanding law firm or legal services firm as providing these services, with EY close behind at 39 percent.

      Even in these instances, however, there was often a clear aim to integrate these practices into the relevant Big Four's overall service offerings. Although the expansion and diversification of the Big Four legal networks between and belied the common perception that the accountancy giants had abandoned their ambitions to become important players in the global legal services market, the extent of these networks was not readily apparent from the Big Four's main Web sites.

      Thus, in the global Web sites of three of the Big Four—Deloitte b , KPMG b , and EY a —did not mention the countries in which their member firms provided legal services to clients we return to PwC's strategy below. The first is entirely prudential. Given the regulatory and public relations issues that continued to hang over the Big Four's entry into the market for legal services in , it is quite likely that the leaders of these international networks were still advocating for a cautious global strategy regarding their member firms' legal businesses.

      Supporting this argument, we found no reference to the provision of legal services in any of the Big Four's Global Annual Reviews for the years and In addition to being prudent, however, attaching legal services to the tax function also allowed the Big Four to leverage their strong brands in this area and to take advantage of the growing desire by many corporate clients for an integrated approach to tax and legal services. By making their legal services offering visible through the tax function, the Big Four underscored that they could go one step better by putting lawyers and accountants in the same firm.

      Although both discretion and a desire to leverage their leading tax brands helps explain why the Big Four tended to make their legal services offerings visible primarily through their local and tax Web sites, by the spring of , PwC was already beginning to take a bolder and more ambitious approach. India represents an interesting example. Although discretion may have played a role here as well—India, after all, bars virtually all foreign law firms from practicing in the country Wilkins and Papa —the visibility that PwC gave to its legal services offerings in India on its GLSN site underscores its desire to signal that its legal network is fully integrated into its broader set of global services offerings.

      It is not surprising that PwC was more aggressive in staking this claim in than were its rivals. Unlike in , when PwC sought to portray Landwell as an independent network Landwell , however, by , Landwell's law firms had already been integrated into PwC's international network. This strategy proved quite successful. Not surprisingly, these results did not escape the attention of the remaining three members of the Big Four. When we revisited the Big Four's Web sites in , it was clear that all three trends identified above had accelerated during the intervening three years.

      Similarly, revisiting the global Web sites of the Big Four in November also confirmed the remarkable international expansion and regional diversification of these networks into emerging markets see Table 6. Nonetheless, despite these and other examples of lateral hiring to expand and upgrade their legal expertise, it is important to note that the leaders of the Big Four's legal teams are primarily individuals who have spent the majority of their careers inside one of these institutions. This approach provides another important insight into their current strategy.

      In the s, the Big Four went to great lengths to present the lawyers working in their legal networks as independent professionals who were insulated from the rest of the firm. Finally, since the Big Four have also embraced new opportunities to integrate their legal practices into their existing global networks.

      The biggest change to occur since , however, harkens back to the move that first signaled the original emergence of the Big Four in the market for legal services—the reemergence of three of the Big Four as major players in the UK market for legal services. This time, however, the accounting giants are doing so with the full blessing of the regulators.

      As a result, these professional services firms may now integrate the kind of legal services that previously could be offered only by entities solely owned and controlled by lawyers into their UK businesses. Clearly, more than a decade after they were proclaimed dead by most pundits, by the Big Four's increasingly integrated and expansive legal networks are not only alive and well in the global market for legal services, but they have also come out of the shadows to promote their fully integrated model for delivering multidisciplinary professional services in many of the most important legal markets in the world.

      In the next section, we examine how they have managed to achieve this remarkable feat. Looking back, we believe that four interrelated factors have allowed the Big Four accounting firms to expand their legal offerings: 1 gaps in the regulation of auditor independence, 2 changes in the regulatory framework of the legal profession, 3 globalization—and the attractiveness of the global market for legal services, and 4 the organizational evolution of the Big Four.

      Significantly, each of these developments appears likely to continue in the coming years, thereby accelerating the growth and importance of the Big Four's legal networks. However, gaps in auditor independence regulation have allowed the Big Four to rebuild their nonaudit businesses, including legal services, in many countries around the world—even in the United States. Nothing in SOX prohibits this practice.

      However, the engine of this growth has entirely been NAS provided to clients other than audit clients. The regulatory situation in Europe has been even more accommodating. Although the European Commission followed the United States in adopting rules that purported to prevent audit firms from providing NAS to their audit clients, the actual implementation of this directive varied widely among member states.

      The fact that Deloitte's French CEO had no qualms about making such a statement publicly underscores just how little he believed that France's regulation was likely to constrain Deloitte's attempt to integrate Taj's legal service offerings into Deloitte's multidisciplinary offerings. These supranational restrictions have now established a cap on the amount of nonaudit fees that the auditor may receive, as well as a list of prohibited services that the auditor is not permitted to provide, which notably includes certain tax services. While it remains unclear how these rules are to be applied by the different member states of the European Union, similar rules at the national level in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom have not prevented the revival of the Big Four legal practices in these three important European countries Esteban Ferrer and Wilkins These gaps in the regulation of auditors have been greatly accentuated by changes in the regulation of the legal profession.

      This report ushered in a trend toward government intervention to deregulate the market for legal services. This deregulation has taken three forms, all of which have eased the entry of the Big Four into the global legal services market: 1 the creation of alternative business structures ABSs that allow lawyers and nonlawyers to go into business together in fully integrated multidisciplinary practices, and nonlawyers to invest in and manage law firms, 2 the reduction of activities that are exclusively reserved for licensed lawyers, and 3 a shift in the control of the professions from professional associations to independent regulators OECD Following Australia's lead, the United Kingdom enacted the Legal Services Act of LSA , implementing the most influential deregulatory reforms in the history of the market for legal services anywhere in the world.

      Particularly, these reforms opened the legal services sector in the United Kingdom to the creation of the type of ABSs described above. Nor is the United Kingdom alone in following this path. Even in the United States, the American Bar Association's Commission on the future of professional regulation actively debated allowing MDPs for the first time since the House of Delegates rejected a similar recommendation in Although the proposal was ultimately defeated, the fact that it received serious consideration underscores just how far the deregulatory trend has moved in the last several years.

      At the same time, the Big Four have been able to exploit regulatory loopholes in important jurisdictions where the regulation of the legal profession is less developed. Consider, for example, China. Taken together, the trend toward deregulation in many advanced economies and the regulatory gaps in many emerging ones have made it easier for the Big Four to expand their legal services offerings.

      Trends in the transnational regulation of professional services appear likely to pave the way for even further expansion. Whatever national governments and bar associations might like to decide, there is significant pressure building for the deregulation of professional services at the transnational level through the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Not surprisingly, the large accountancy networks have played a key role in these debates.

      Specifically, the Big Four have actively lobbied to eliminate global barriers to trade and investment in professional services, including services beyond the accountancy profession Arnold ; Suddaby, Cooper, and Greenwood Ironically, big law firms have also taken up the global deregulatory call. Although constitutionally mistrustful of government intervention, many large law firms have nevertheless not been shy about asking governments to assist them in loosening various aspects of professional regulation that are seen as restricting their ability to expand geographically and generate higher profits.

      Thus, large law firms have become agents of deregulation at international and national forums, urging the easing of restrictions on conflicts of interest, the entry of foreign law firms into domestic legal markets, the hiring and compensation of nonlawyer professionals, the acceptance of outside capital, and the creation of new structures and practices such as Swiss vereins Flood ; Loughrey ; Richmond and Corbin The fact that these regulatory trends have occurred in the context of a legal services market that has become increasingly globalized—with a growing percentage of that global activity located in the emerging economies in Asia, Latin America, and Africa—has further facilitated the Big Four's reemergence in the legal field in the years since As indicated in Section II Historical Background , the Big Four have always been attracted by the size and profitability of the legal market relative to the decline in their core audit business.

      The overall growth in the size of the legal market since has only exacerbated this disparity. This amount represents three times the value of the audit market, according to data from MarketLine Moreover, the legal services market is incredibly fragmented. While the Big Four's joint turnover for audits in represents 23 percent of the value of global audits, the turnover jointly generated by all the top law firms ranked in the Am Law for the same year American Lawyer accounted for a scant 13 percent of the global legal market.

      As the commentators who proclaimed the demise of the Big Four legal networks in the years following SOX accurately reported, large law firms have become significantly more global in recent years. Where these commentators erred, however, was in failing to understand that the increasing globalization of the legal services market would favor the model of international expansion pursued by the Big Four far more than the one followed by most law firms.

      As multinational companies have rapidly expanded their operations around the globe, they have increasingly looked for professional service firms that can provide them with consistent services—including legal services—across their entire platform Hitt et al. Given their extensive experience in marshaling global resources Abdelzaher , the Big Four are in an ideal position to meet this need.

      A comparison with global law firms underscores just how big an advantage this is for the Big Four. Table 7 reports the global reach by region of Baker McKenzie and DLA Piper, widely considered to be two of the most global law firms in the world. Moreover, given the Big Four's announced intentions, this disparity seems certain to grow, particularly in the emerging economies.

      Although Baker McKenzie and DLA Piper currently have significant presence in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, they will be hard pressed to match the investments the Big Four are making in their growth in these increasingly important regions. Baker McKenz. Both PwC and EY have declared their intention to double their respective networks' legal headcounts in Asia Broomhall ; Kriegler Although this investment was not specifically earmarked for legal services, the fact that EY is increasingly embedding these offerings in its broader multidisciplinary offerings means that its legal network will benefit from this significant investment.

      This last point highlights a final important advantage that the Big Four have over law firms in pursuing a global strategy. This concession is significant. As many commentators have noted, these affiliations or referrals raise important questions of quality control and coordination Grady When compared to the trend noted in Table 4 of the Big Four moving to integrate law firms, with whom they only had a contractual association, into their global MDP networks, it is clear that the accountancy firms have an advantage in claiming to offer multinational companies integrated global service.

      Indeed, while most global law firms have increasingly embraced a federal model where local law firms are affiliated under the umbrella of a Swiss verein—often expressly modeled on the model adopted by the global accounting firms in the s—the Big Four themselves have moved away from this structure in order to achieve greater integration of their multidisciplinary practices. This brings us to the final, and arguably the most significant, factor that has allowed the Big Four to rebuild their legal networks notwithstanding the concerted efforts by regulators to prevent them from doing so.

      The global legal services market grew at an unprecedented rate in the years following SOX. According to one estimate, between and , demand for legal services expanded at a compound annual rate of 3. The global financial crisis further exacerbated this tendency, as law firms fought to hold on to premium work as a hedge against declining profits and departing partners Wilkins This strategy proved effective in differentiating the very top law firms from their rivals through quality and specialization Mawdsley and Somaya However, it also led many firms—including many who were not in the very top tier, but felt compelled to try to be—to abandon a variety of practice areas such as employment, property, and general corporate law that had long been a part of the suite of services large law firms offered to their clients Faulconbridge and Muzio This loss, in turn, opened the door for the Big Four, whose organizational model was evolving to emphasize precisely this kind of integration of law into business solutions.

      As EY's chairman and CEO James Turley stated in his farewell letter when he stepped down in , the goal is to develop a new integrated approach to professional service built around the twin pillars of quality and integration EY b. Elite accounting firms begin to establish law firms and affiliate or associate with existing law firms, eventually integrating them into separately branded international networks: Andersen Legal, Landwell, KLegal, and EY Law. Legal becomes a core function. Appoint star lawyers to lead the international legal networks and target lateral hires from top law firms.

      Strong response against MDPs by the accounting and the legal professions, particularly in the United States. Support for the surviving legal practices is transferred to the networks' national firms, which mostly retreat to the provision of legal services complementary to the tax function. The Big Four reemerge as important players in the market for legal services, particularly in Europe and emerging markets in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Emergence of potentially disruptive technologies and business models in the professional services industries.

      In the years since the period of crisis and renewal, the Big Four have taken a number of steps to transform and, ultimately, to transcend the federal model that they pursued in the s. Although each firm's approach to these issues has been different, there are core similarities among their actions—similarities that have paradoxically both sharpened the differences and blurred the lines between the Big Four and the law firms with which they increasingly compete.

      At the heart of this effort is a sustained commitment by each of the Big Four since to put integration and risk management at the core of its strategy, and to do so across all countries and service lines. To signal this new creditworthiness, the Big Four are moving aggressively to integrate their FLPs within their international networks, thereby subjecting them to the same hierarchical controls, branding, strategy, processes, standards, and values as the rest of the business.

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